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History and Culture

Mongolia has a rich and fascinating history, dating back to the days of the Mongol Empire, which was founded by Genghis Khan in the 13th century and became one of the largest empires in history, stretching from Europe to Asia. The empire was based on the principles of military strength, meritocracy, and a highly efficient system of communication and administration, which allowed the Mongol leaders to effectively govern a diverse and far-flung population.

At its height, the Mongol Empire covered a vast territory that included much of modern-day China, Russia, Central Asia, Iran, and the Middle East. The Mongols were known for their military prowess, but they were also culturally sophisticated, fostering a rich tradition of arts, literature, and science. The empire was divided among Genghis Khan’s descendants, but it continued to grow under his successors, including his grandson, Kublai Khan, who established the Yuan dynasty in China.
Despite its vast size and military power, the Mongol Empire eventually declined, partly due to internal disputes among the descendants of Genghis Khan and partly due to the empire’s vastness, which made it difficult to maintain centralized control.

Nevertheless, the legacy of the Mongol Empire has had a lasting impact on the history of Asia and the world, and the Mongol leaders, particularly Genghis Khan, remain significant figures in popular culture and historical memory.

In the 16th century, Mongolia was ruled Qing dynasty, until it declared independence in 1911. During World War II, Mongolia was a neutral country, but after the war it became a communist state under Soviet influence. In 1990, Mongolia transitioned to a multiparty democracy and a market-based economy, becoming one of the few successful examples of such a transition in the post-Soviet era.


Religion in Mongolia has a long and complex history, shaped by the influence of various cultures and beliefs over the centuries. Today, the majority of the Mongolian population is not affiliated with any particular religion, although there has been a recent resurgence of interest in Buddhism, which has a strong historical and cultural association with Mongolia.
In the past, Mongolian religion was characterized by a mix of shamanism, ancestor worship, and various local beliefs and practices. With the rise of the Mongol Empire, Buddhism was introduced to Mongolia and eventually became the dominant religion, but it was suppressed under communist rule in the 20th century.

Since the end of communism in Mongolia, there has been a resurgence of religious activity, and many Mongolians have rediscovered their cultural and spiritual heritage. Buddhism remains an important part of Mongolian culture, but there is also a growing Christian community, as well as a small but significant Muslim community, particularly among ethnic minority groups.

Overall, religion in Mongolia is characterized by diversity, tolerance, and a growing interest in spirituality and cultural heritage, as the country continues to navigate its place in the modern world. The Constitution of Mongolia defines “freedom of religion or belief” as a fundamental human right and prohibits discrimination towards any religion or belief.

Nomadic culture

Nomadic culture in Mongolia is a rich and ancient tradition, deeply rooted in the country’s history and way of life. The Mongolian landscape, characterized by its mountains, steppes, and the Gobi Desert, has long made a nomadic lifestyle necessary for survival. Nomads in Mongolia are known for their close relationship with the land and their animals, particularly horses and cattle. Herding is a way of life for many nomads, who roam the countryside with their animals in search of grass and water. This lifestyle is characterized by a deep respect for the natural environment and a strong sense of community and family.

Despite the rapid modernization of Mongolia in recent years, the nomadic lifestyle has persisted, and over 180,000 households still practice animal husbandry in the countryside. Nomads have adapted to modern technology, using solar panels and batteries for electricity, smartphones for communication and weather updates, and modern dairy and meat processing methods.

Nomadic culture is also deeply connected to traditional music, dance, and storytelling, which play a significant role in preserving the country’s cultural heritage. The horse-head fiddle, for example, is a symbol of Mongolian nomadic culture and is played at traditional festivals and ceremonies. Overall, nomadic culture in Mongolia is an important part of the country’s heritage, and it continues to thrive and evolve, reflecting the resilience and adaptability of its people.

Urban life

Over 50% of the population now lives in urban areas, especially in the capital, Ulaanbaatar, which serves as the financial, business, and administrative center. The city is home to several museums and entertainment venues displaying rare old artifacts, including the Green Palace of the last emperor of Mongolia, Bogd Khaan.

The city has become a thriving modern metropolis, with a mix of old and new, a vibrant artistic community, and a strong commercial and business environment. In addition to traditional classical music and entertainment, the city is home to major music festivals such as the Sunrise and Spirit of Gobi festival, which are popular among the youth.

The annual “Playtime” festival features international live bands and is also highly anticipated. Overall, Ulaanbaatar is a city of diverse and dynamic communities, where locals, migrants from the countryside, and people from all walks of life can be found, living and working together in harmony.


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