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The executive branch of the state is the Government of Mongolia. The government is usually headed by the leader of the party with the majority of seats in the parliamentary elections, or by the Prime Minister. Following a 2019 constitutional amendment, the government was given more political power, giving the Prime Minister the ability to form its cabinet and submit to the parliament for approval.

The composition of the government is determined by the Prime Minister and approved by Parliament.

The current government has 16 ministries and 19 Cabinet members, including the Prime Minister, Chief of Cabinet Secretariat, and Deputy Prime Minister. In addition, agencies with special functions belong to the government.

Roles and responsibilities of the government

Government structure:

Government structure (as of February 2022)

Local government

The territorial unit of Mongolia is divided into 21 provinces and the capital city.


Elections for Citizens’ Representative Khurals – local council coincide with the general parliamentary election and are held once every four years.

Elections for Citizens’ Representative Khurals elect the members of the councils along the following geographical lines:

The party that wins the election of the Citizens’ Representative Khurals of these units proposes the appointment of respective governors. The names of governers are suggested by the Citizen’s Representative Khural/Council (CRC) of their respective units. Provincial and capital governers are appointed by the Prime Minister, while the governors of soums districts are appointed by their respective provincial or capital governers on a four-year term respectively.

The key purpose of the governors of provinces and the capital is to implement the decisions of the respective Citizens’ Representative Khurals. In addition, governors must report to the government on an annual basis.

Roles & responsibilities:


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